the aim of this consensus paper is to standardize the use of cardiotocograms (ctg) in fetal monitoring using an evidence-based approach. the complexity of the fetal response to various disturbances and influencing variables often results in misinterpretations of the fhr. fenoterol, salbutamol) which are used for tocolysis are mostly metabolized prior to the placental barrier, but they can still be effective in minute quantities or as metabolites, leading to an increase in fetal heart rate with a simultaneous reduction of variability and heart rate accelerations. the high number of false positives on the ctg with high rates of inter- and intra-observer variability is a contributing factor (9, 14, 55, 99; el ii a). when using the figo score for the assessment of ctg readings, a reading of 30 minutes is necessary. a number of conservative measures can be taken to clarify or improve the patterns (e.g.
heart rate regulation in the non-distressed fetus responds to fetal movement by an acceleration of the heart rate (this applies from the 34th week of gestation). the accelerations of fetal heart rate which occur with fetal movement are assessed. the aim of this method, which is used predominantly in the usa and the uk to monitor high-risk pregnancies, is to improve the prediction of fetal risk compared to predictions based on conventional monitoring of individual criteria. the kctg records fetal movements in a third channel in addition to ctg recordings; the number and duration of movements are depicted using columns of various lengths. the system with its visual analysis was tested by ctg experts and resulted in a significant improvement of reproducibility. studies have shown a reduction in the rate of operative deliveries and fewer neonates with metabolic acidosis. a good understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of fetal cardiac and circulatory regulation is essential for a competent interpretation of fetal heart rate patterns.
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the form 10-k fully complies with the requirements of section 13(a) or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934; and computer task group, incorporated (ctg) | 8-k. the largest ctg repeat expansion (2293 ctg repeats) on average riley b, williamson r, johnson k (1992): detection of an unstable fragment of dna specific to individuals with myotonic dystrophy., saltatory ctg, ctg lecture, tightenings on ctg, ctg interpretation subjective
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